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Thanks for checking out my FAQ section! Due to my schedule craziness, it is often impossible to respond to each of the inquiries I receive...but I definitely do want to answer as many of your questions as I'm able. Here are some of my responses to the most frequent questions I receive. I'll try to add to this as time permits. Thanks for your interest! God bless you & your grooving...



Hi Norm,

I understand how to apply the modes of the scale in a chord progression, however when the chorus falls outside the scale of the key the song is written in (e.g., the song is in D and the chorus is in F), what mode of F do I apply here when Phrygian is an F#?

Thanks for your help,

Hey Eddie-

Great question; there are lots of occasions when an arranger or composer will deviate from diatonic harmony to achieve a particular musical result. In those cases, you want to evaluate whether or not the deviation is an isolated thing, or if in fact the tune has (perhaps even for just a bar or two) modulated to another key. To address your specific example, it would be helpful to evaluate it in the context of the overall piece...but I'd suspect that F major (Ionian) would work for that F chord.

Use your ears and your knowledge of the modes/diatonic harmony to fill in the blanks and/or illuminate areas of harmonic ambiguity. Happy woodshedding!

Blessings- Norm

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